【深度学习实战】GraphSAGE(pytorch)

96
0
2021年2月7日 09时24分

目录

 

    • 1. 采样(sampling.py)
    • 2. 聚合(net.py)
    • 3. GraphSAGE模型构建(net.py)
    • 4. 数据处理(data.py)
    • 5. 主函数
      • 5.1 导入需要的包
      • 5.2 数据准备
      • 5.3 模型初始化
      • 5.4 模型训练和测试

 

1. 采样(sampling.py)

 

GraphSAGE包括两个方面,一是对邻居的采样,二是对邻居的聚合操作。

 

为了实现更高效的采样,可以将节点及其邻居节点存放在一起,即维护一个节点与其邻居对应关系的表。并通过两个函数来实现采样的具体操作,sampling是一阶采样,multihop_sampling是利用sampling实现多阶采样的功能。

 

import numpy as np


def sampling(src_nodes, sample_num, neighbor_table):
    """根据源节点采样指定数量的邻居节点,注意使用的是有放回的采样;
    某个节点的邻居节点数量少于采样数量时,采样结果出现重复的节点
    
    Arguments:
        src_nodes {list, ndarray} -- 源节点列表
        sample_num {int} -- 需要采样的节点数
        neighbor_table {dict} -- 节点到其邻居节点的映射表
    
    Returns:
        np.ndarray -- 采样结果构成的列表
    """
    results = []
    for sid in src_nodes:
        # 从节点的邻居中进行有放回地进行采样
        res = np.random.choice(neighbor_table[sid], size=(sample_num, ))
        results.append(res)
    return np.asarray(results).flatten()

def multihop_sampling(src_nodes, sample_nums, neighbor_table):
    """根据源节点进行多阶采样
    
    Arguments:
        src_nodes {list, np.ndarray} -- 源节点id
        sample_nums {list of int} -- 每一阶需要采样的个数
        neighbor_table {dict} -- 节点到其邻居节点的映射
    
    Returns:
        [list of ndarray] -- 每一阶采样的结果
    """
    sampling_result = [src_nodes]
    for k, hopk_num in enumerate(sample_nums):
        hopk_result = sampling(sampling_result[k], hopk_num, neighbor_table)
        sampling_result.append(hopk_result)
    return sampling_result

 

采样得到的结果是节点的ID,需要根据节点的ID去查询每个节点的特征。

 

2. 聚合(net.py)

 

聚合通过神经网络来实现。在定义的forward函数中,输入neighbor_feature表示需要聚合的邻居节点的特征,它的维度为1610603284(1),其中N src 表示源节点的数量,Nneighbor表示邻居节点的数量,Din表示输入特征的维度。将这些邻居节点的特征通过一个线性变换得到隐藏层特征,进而进行求和、均值、最大值等聚合操作,得到1610603378(1)维的输出。

 

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torch.nn.init as init

class NeighborAggregator(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_dim, output_dim, 
                 use_bias=False, aggr_method="mean"):
        """聚合节点邻居
        Args:
            input_dim: 输入特征的维度
            output_dim: 输出特征的维度
            use_bias: 是否使用偏置 (default: {False})
            aggr_method: 邻居聚合方式 (default: {mean})
        """
        super(NeighborAggregator, self).__init__()
        self.input_dim = input_dim
        self.output_dim = output_dim
        self.use_bias = use_bias
        self.aggr_method = aggr_method
        self.weight = nn.Parameter(torch.Tensor(input_dim, output_dim))
        if self.use_bias:
            self.bias = nn.Parameter(torch.Tensor(self.output_dim))
        self.reset_parameters()
    
    def reset_parameters(self):
        init.kaiming_uniform_(self.weight)
        if self.use_bias:
            init.zeros_(self.bias)

    def forward(self, neighbor_feature):
        if self.aggr_method == "mean":
            aggr_neighbor = neighbor_feature.mean(dim=1)
        elif self.aggr_method == "sum":
            aggr_neighbor = neighbor_feature.sum(dim=1)
        elif self.aggr_method == "max":
            aggr_neighbor = neighbor_feature.max(dim=1)
        else:
            raise ValueError("Unknown aggr type, expected sum, max, or mean, but got {}"
                             .format(self.aggr_method))
        
        neighbor_hidden = torch.matmul(aggr_neighbor, self.weight)
        if self.use_bias:
            neighbor_hidden += self.bias

        return neighbor_hidden

    def extra_repr(self):
        return 'in_features={}, out_features={}, aggr_method={}'.format(
            self.input_dim, self.output_dim, self.aggr_method)

 

3. GraphSAGE模型构建(net.py)

 

微信图片_20210114135002

 

我们先看SageGCN类中的forward函数。首先,邻居节点的隐藏层neighbor_hidden由定义的聚合器self.aggregator计算得到;该聚合器计算的实际上是上式中1610603432(1)这一部分,聚合函数可以算则mean函数、sum函数和pool函数;该部分侧重于节点的环境信息(图关联信息)。self_hidden计算的是1610603486(1),侧重于节点的自身属性。环境信息和自身属性的结合有两种方式,一种是矩阵相加(sum),一种是矩阵相接(concat)。最后通过设置的激活函数activation计算得到1610603532(1)

 

class SageGCN(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_dim, hidden_dim,
                 activation=F.relu,
                 aggr_neighbor_method="mean",
                 aggr_hidden_method="sum"):
        """SageGCN层定义
        Args:
            input_dim: 输入特征的维度
            hidden_dim: 隐层特征的维度,
                当aggr_hidden_method=sum, 输出维度为hidden_dim
                当aggr_hidden_method=concat, 输出维度为hidden_dim*2
            activation: 激活函数
            aggr_neighbor_method: 邻居特征聚合方法,["mean", "sum", "max"]
            aggr_hidden_method: 节点特征的更新方法,["sum", "concat"]
        """
        super(SageGCN, self).__init__()
        assert aggr_neighbor_method in ["mean", "sum", "max"]
        assert aggr_hidden_method in ["sum", "concat"]
        self.input_dim = input_dim
        self.hidden_dim = hidden_dim
        self.aggr_neighbor_method = aggr_neighbor_method
        self.aggr_hidden_method = aggr_hidden_method
        self.activation = activation
        self.aggregator = NeighborAggregator(input_dim, hidden_dim,
                                             aggr_method=aggr_neighbor_method)
        self.b = nn.Parameter(torch.Tensor(input_dim, hidden_dim))
        self.reset_parameters()
    
    def reset_parameters(self):
        init.kaiming_uniform_(self.b)

    def forward(self, src_node_features, neighbor_node_features):
        neighbor_hidden = self.aggregator(neighbor_node_features)
        self_hidden = torch.matmul(src_node_features, self.b)
        
        if self.aggr_hidden_method == "sum":
            hidden = self_hidden + neighbor_hidden
        elif self.aggr_hidden_method == "concat":
            hidden = torch.cat([self_hidden, neighbor_hidden], dim=1)
        else:
            raise ValueError("Expected sum or concat, got {}"
                             .format(self.aggr_hidden))
        if self.activation:
            return self.activation(hidden)
        else:
            return hidden

    def extra_repr(self):
        output_dim = self.hidden_dim if self.aggr_hidden_method == "sum" else self.hidden_dim * 2
        return 'in_features={}, out_features={}, aggr_hidden_method={}'.format(
            self.input_dim, output_dim, self.aggr_hidden_method)

 

于前面定义的采样和节点特征更新方式,就可以实现计算节点嵌入的方法。下面定义了一个两层的模型,隐藏层节点数为64,假设每阶采样点数都为10,那么计算中心节点的输出可以通过以下代码实现。其中前向传播时传入的参数node_features_list是一个列表,其中第0个元素代表源节点的特征,其后的元素表示每阶采样得到的节点特征。

 

class GraphSage(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_dim, hidden_dim,
                 num_neighbors_list):
        super(GraphSage, self).__init__()
        self.input_dim = input_dim
        self.hidden_dim = hidden_dim
        self.num_neighbors_list = num_neighbors_list
        self.num_layers = len(num_neighbors_list)
        self.gcn = nn.ModuleList()
        self.gcn.append(SageGCN(input_dim, hidden_dim[0]))
        for index in range(0, len(hidden_dim) - 2):
            self.gcn.append(SageGCN(hidden_dim[index], hidden_dim[index+1]))
        self.gcn.append(SageGCN(hidden_dim[-2], hidden_dim[-1], activation=None))

    def forward(self, node_features_list):
        hidden = node_features_list
        for l in range(self.num_layers):
            next_hidden = []
            gcn = self.gcn[l]
            for hop in range(self.num_layers - l):
                src_node_features = hidden[hop]
                src_node_num = len(src_node_features)
                neighbor_node_features = hidden[hop + 1] \
                    .view((src_node_num, self.num_neighbors_list[hop], -1))
                h = gcn(src_node_features, neighbor_node_features)
                next_hidden.append(h)
            hidden = next_hidden
        return hidden[0]

    def extra_repr(self):
        return 'in_features={}, num_neighbors_list={}'.format(
            self.input_dim, self.num_neighbors_list
        )

 

4. 数据处理(data.py)

 

数据处理和【深度学习实战】《深入浅出图神经网络》GCN实战(pytorch)中的基本一致。

 

import os
import os.path as osp
import pickle
import itertools
import scipy.sparse as sp
import urllib
from collections import namedtuple
import numpy as np

Data = namedtuple('Data', ['x', 'y', 'adjacency_dict',
                           'train_mask', 'val_mask', 'test_mask'])

class CoraData(object):
    download_url = "https://github.com/kimiyoung/planetoid/raw/master/data"
    filenames = ["ind.cora.{}".format(name) for name in
                 ['x', 'tx', 'allx', 'y', 'ty', 'ally', 'graph', 'test.index']]

    def __init__(self, data_root="cora", rebuild=False):
        """Cora数据,包括数据下载,处理,加载等功能
        当数据的缓存文件存在时,将使用缓存文件,否则将下载、进行处理,并缓存到磁盘
        处理之后的数据可以通过属性 .data 获得,它将返回一个数据对象,包括如下几部分:
            * x: 节点的特征,维度为 2708 * 1433,类型为 np.ndarray
            * y: 节点的标签,总共包括7个类别,类型为 np.ndarray
            * adjacency_dict: 邻接信息,,类型为 dict
            * train_mask: 训练集掩码向量,维度为 2708,当节点属于训练集时,相应位置为True,否则False
            * val_mask: 验证集掩码向量,维度为 2708,当节点属于验证集时,相应位置为True,否则False
            * test_mask: 测试集掩码向量,维度为 2708,当节点属于测试集时,相应位置为True,否则False
        Args:
        -------
            data_root: string, optional
                存放数据的目录,原始数据路径: {data_root}/raw
                缓存数据路径: {data_root}/processed_cora.pkl
            rebuild: boolean, optional
                是否需要重新构建数据集,当设为True时,如果存在缓存数据也会重建数据
        """
        self.data_root = data_root
        save_file = osp.join(self.data_root, "processed_cora.pkl")
        if osp.exists(save_file) and not rebuild:
            print("Using Cached file: {}".format(save_file))
            self._data = pickle.load(open(save_file, "rb"))
        else:
            self.maybe_download()
            self._data = self.process_data()
            with open(save_file, "wb") as f:
                pickle.dump(self.data, f)
            print("Cached file: {}".format(save_file))

    @property
    def data(self):
        """返回Data数据对象,包括x, y, adjacency, train_mask, val_mask, test_mask"""
        return self._data

    def process_data(self):
        """
        处理数据,得到节点特征和标签,邻接矩阵,训练集、验证集以及测试集
        引用自:https://github.com/rusty1s/pytorch_geometric
        """
        print("Process data ...")
        _, tx, allx, y, ty, ally, graph, test_index = [self.read_data(
            osp.join(self.data_root, "raw", name)) for name in self.filenames]
        train_index = np.arange(y.shape[0])
        val_index = np.arange(y.shape[0], y.shape[0] + 500)
        sorted_test_index = sorted(test_index)

        x = np.concatenate((allx, tx), axis=0)
        y = np.concatenate((ally, ty), axis=0).argmax(axis=1)

        x[test_index] = x[sorted_test_index]
        y[test_index] = y[sorted_test_index]
        num_nodes = x.shape[0]

        train_mask = np.zeros(num_nodes, dtype=np.bool)
        val_mask = np.zeros(num_nodes, dtype=np.bool)
        test_mask = np.zeros(num_nodes, dtype=np.bool)
        train_mask[train_index] = True
        val_mask[val_index] = True
        test_mask[test_index] = True
        adjacency_dict = graph
        print("Node's feature shape: ", x.shape)
        print("Node's label shape: ", y.shape)
        print("Adjacency's shape: ", len(adjacency_dict))
        print("Number of training nodes: ", train_mask.sum())
        print("Number of validation nodes: ", val_mask.sum())
        print("Number of test nodes: ", test_mask.sum())

        return Data(x=x, y=y, adjacency_dict=adjacency_dict,
                    train_mask=train_mask, val_mask=val_mask, test_mask=test_mask)

    def maybe_download(self):
        save_path = os.path.join(self.data_root, "raw")
        for name in self.filenames:
            if not osp.exists(osp.join(save_path, name)):
                self.download_data(
                    "{}/{}".format(self.download_url, name), save_path)

    @staticmethod
    def build_adjacency(adj_dict):
        """根据邻接表创建邻接矩阵"""
        edge_index = []
        num_nodes = len(adj_dict)
        for src, dst in adj_dict.items():
            edge_index.extend([src, v] for v in dst)
            edge_index.extend([v, src] for v in dst)
        # 去除重复的边
        edge_index = list(k for k, _ in itertools.groupby(sorted(edge_index)))
        edge_index = np.asarray(edge_index)
        adjacency = sp.coo_matrix((np.ones(len(edge_index)),
                                   (edge_index[:, 0], edge_index[:, 1])),
                                  shape=(num_nodes, num_nodes), dtype="float32")
        return adjacency

    @staticmethod
    def read_data(path):
        """使用不同的方式读取原始数据以进一步处理"""
        name = osp.basename(path)
        if name == "ind.cora.test.index":
            out = np.genfromtxt(path, dtype="int64")
            return out
        else:
            out = pickle.load(open(path, "rb"), encoding="latin1")
            out = out.toarray() if hasattr(out, "toarray") else out
            return out

    @staticmethod
    def download_data(url, save_path):
        """数据下载工具,当原始数据不存在时将会进行下载"""
        if not os.path.exists(save_path):
            os.makedirs(save_path)
        data = urllib.request.urlopen(url)
        filename = os.path.split(url)[-1]

        with open(os.path.join(save_path, filename), 'wb') as f:
            f.write(data.read())

        return True

 

5. 主函数

 

5.1 导入需要的包

 

import torch

import numpy as np
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.optim as optim
from net import GraphSage
from data import CoraData
from sampling import multihop_sampling

from collections import namedtuple

 

5.2 数据准备

 

Data = namedtuple('Data', ['x', 'y', 'adjacency_dict',
                           'train_mask', 'val_mask', 'test_mask'])

data = CoraData().data
x = data.x / data.x.sum(1, keepdims=True)  # 归一化数据,使得每一行和为1

train_index = np.where(data.train_mask)[0]
train_label = data.y[train_index]
test_index = np.where(data.test_mask)[0]

 

输出:

 

Node's feature shape:  (2708, 1433)
Node's label shape:  (2708,)
Adjacency's shape:  2708
Number of training nodes:  140
Number of validation nodes:  500
Number of test nodes:  1000

 

可以看到,数据集中共有2708个节点,节点特征有1433维,因此,GraphSAGE的输入维度INPUT_DIM = 1433

 

5.3 模型初始化

 

INPUT_DIM = 1433    # 输入维度
# Note: 采样的邻居阶数需要与GCN的层数保持一致
HIDDEN_DIM = [128, 7]   # 隐藏单元节点数
NUM_NEIGHBORS_LIST = [10, 10]   # 每阶采样邻居的节点数
assert len(HIDDEN_DIM) == len(NUM_NEIGHBORS_LIST)
BTACH_SIZE = 16     # 批处理大小
EPOCHS = 20
NUM_BATCH_PER_EPOCH = 20    # 每个epoch循环的批次数
LEARNING_RATE = 0.01    # 学习率
DEVICE = "cuda" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu"

model = GraphSage(input_dim=INPUT_DIM, hidden_dim=HIDDEN_DIM,
                  num_neighbors_list=NUM_NEIGHBORS_LIST).to(DEVICE)
print(model)
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss().to(DEVICE)
optimizer = optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=LEARNING_RATE, weight_decay=5e-4)

 

输出:

 

GraphSage(
  in_features=1433, num_neighbors_list=[10, 10]
  (gcn): ModuleList(
    (0): SageGCN(
      in_features=1433, out_features=128, aggr_hidden_method=sum
      (aggregator): NeighborAggregator(in_features=1433, out_features=128, aggr_method=mean)
    )
    (1): SageGCN(
      in_features=128, out_features=7, aggr_hidden_method=sum
      (aggregator): NeighborAggregator(in_features=128, out_features=7, aggr_method=mean)
    )
  )
)

 

5.4 模型训练和测试

 

在训练过程中,首先利用np.random.choice()函数从训练节点标签中随机选择BTACH_SIZE=16个节点作为源节点,再通过采样函数获得这些节点的采样。

 

def train():
    model.train()
    for e in range(EPOCHS):
        for batch in range(NUM_BATCH_PER_EPOCH):
            batch_src_index = np.random.choice(train_index, size=(BTACH_SIZE,))
            batch_src_label = torch.from_numpy(train_label[batch_src_index]).long().to(DEVICE)
            batch_sampling_result = multihop_sampling(batch_src_index, NUM_NEIGHBORS_LIST, data.adjacency_dict)
            batch_sampling_x = [torch.from_numpy(x[idx]).float().to(DEVICE) for idx in batch_sampling_result]
            batch_train_logits = model(batch_sampling_x)
            loss = criterion(batch_train_logits, batch_src_label)
            optimizer.zero_grad()
            loss.backward()  # 反向传播计算参数的梯度
            optimizer.step()  # 使用优化方法进行梯度更新
            print("Epoch {:03d} Batch {:03d} Loss: {:.4f}".format(e, batch, loss.item()))
        test()


def test():
    model.eval()
    with torch.no_grad():
        test_sampling_result = multihop_sampling(test_index, NUM_NEIGHBORS_LIST, data.adjacency_dict)
        test_x = [torch.from_numpy(x[idx]).float().to(DEVICE) for idx in test_sampling_result]
        test_logits = model(test_x)
        test_label = torch.from_numpy(data.y[test_index]).long().to(DEVICE)
        predict_y = test_logits.max(1)[1]
        accuarcy = torch.eq(predict_y, test_label).float().mean().item()
        print("Test Accuracy: ", accuarcy)

train()

发表评论

后才能评论